Union issue blanket
Blanket made from period pattern wool
The amount of civilian blankets should be extremely minimal. The Federal Army as it marched toward Perryville discarded blankets all the way. The 24th Wisconsin Infantry left Louisville with red wool blankets, but tossed them into the ditch along the march. These blankets were quickly picked up by veteran infantrymen who then discarded their old Federal issue “ratty” blankets.
Eyewear and Glasses:
Spectacles (what we call glasses today) were not a common item amongst Civil War soldiers. Hence, try to get by without glasses if you can while doing Living History or wear contact lenses. If you must wear glasses, visit antique stores and purchase a 19th century pair and have the lenses replaced with one of your prescription, preferably with safety lenses. No modern glasses may be worn at anytime as part of a Living History program.
Individual items of civilian attire are acceptable as identified above. The presence, though, of a recent recruit in the ranks entirely in civilian attire would certainly be possible in recently recruited cavalry. Most new men were uniformed in about a month after joining the unit, but in a period of active campaigning, some time could pass before the usual military clothing could be issued.
Not every soldier has to have every possible personal possession. However, having at least a few of these little items helps complete and enrich the impression. In choosing personal effects, remember that you will have to carry them.
Soldiers would have combs, toothbrush, pocketknife, housewife, handkerchief (bandannas/railroad scarves are not acceptable) vests, civilian or military pattern wallet, writing paper pen and ink, pencil, mirror, playing cards, various game pieces books or newspapers.
In addition to having the appropriate Living History equipment and material, it must be used and worn correctly. Pants and waist belts were worn at the real waist (i.e. the naval) and not at the hips; clothes were not form fitting. Hats and coats were worn whenever in public; pants were rarely tucked in the socks. By adopting the appropriate 19th century use and appearance, the Living History impression is remarkably improved.
Kentucky was enduring a major drought during the fall of 1862. Federals and Confederates both were on lengthy marches on incredibly dusty roads. They would be extremely dirty. Their uniforms were in various states of repair and the dust and dirt would be abundantly obvious on their person and clothing.
Long arms: Carbine (Sharps, Burnside, Spencer, Smith) or Rifle (Henry and Colt Revolving Rifle)
Archeological evidence of Henry and Colt Revolving Rifles has been discovered at Perryville.
The 9th Pennsylvania took the point and advanced to Perryville, where the 9th was under intense enemy fire until it was relived by McCooks corps. The 2nd Michigan was well armed with 5 shot Colt [revolving] carbines an early repeating rifle. Meanwhile Reuben Rhoades and most of the Pennsylvanians were armed only with Sabers and Revolvers. There is some indication that they borrowed [Wessing] carbines from the 9th Kentucky! At Perryville the 9th formed on the right of the line and repelled every attempt by the Rebel Cavalry to turn its flank. The 9th had 10 killed, and 27 wounded in this battle. General Buell stated: “The 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry behaved most bravely, being at one time compelled to stand for almost three quarters of an hour under concentrated fire from three batteries of enemy artillery, and only retiring when ordered to do so.”
Yankee Cavalrymen, by John W. Rowell
Pistols: period correct cap and ball pistol in holster. Limit pistols – one per trooper.
Carrying more than one pistol or cylinder is the biggest anachronism in a cavalry impression. Troopers were so excited about getting pistols and pistol parts they often put it in their letters. They simply did not have easy access to small arms. This was common in the border wars and is typical of the “border ruffian” imagery that currently exists in the historical record, but that impression is not appropriate for the Kentucky Campaign.
We were so near the artillery that we could have shot their gunners with our Navy revolvers.
Private Cornelius Baker, Co. C
9th Pennsylvania Cavalry
M1858 Issue belt of black leather, two pieces with appropriate belt plate, shoulder and saber straps
U.S. Issue black leather Holstered pistols should be worn butt forward on the right side.
Federal pattern--smooth side
Other common period pattern
“Bullseye canteens are post Perryville and not appropriate for the impression.
Straps should be cotton, cotton webbing, or leather sewn together or with a buckle or button. As few as two-thirds or one-half of the men need to carry canteens
Gum blankets/ground cloth:
Any appropriate Federal issue gum blanket
No appaloosas, paints, or pintos, unless they can visually pass for a breed commonly in use by the armies during that time period. No stallions or ponies. Do not tie horses to loose or unsecured items!
Out of state horses will need a health certificate within 30 days of the date of the event. In state horses will need a health certificate within 1 year of the event. Health papers are required for transport within state lines. Current flu, rhino, tetanus vaccinations are highly recommended for each horse. If said paperwork is not in order, or if the veterinarian deems the animal to be unhealthy, the participant’s animal will not be allowed access to the site(s). A veterinarian will be on-site or on call for the entire event weekend.
Horses must be supervised and maintained at all times.
Horse Equipment for the Mounted Service
Saddle – M1859 McClellan with appropriate quarter straps, iron hardware with hooded wooden stirrups. No 1874, 1904, 1928 McClellan’s. Officers’ saddles must be honest reproductions.
Breast Strap and Martingale – These are not issued items and should appear to be private purchases
Saddlebags – Black leather with iron buckles
Cruppers – US Issue black leather
Bridle - Black leather, 3 or 6 buckle, US issue iron bit and enlisted sewn reins.
NO MODERN BRIDLES or chrome hardware of any type.
Halter - U.S. M1859 issue of black leather and iron hardware.
Saddle Blanket - U.S. issued blue wool with orange stripe
Carbine Socket - U.S. issue of black leather with iron hardware
Picket Pin – Eye spliced iron with hemp rope
Absolutely no nylon rope or halters are allowed in living history area.
Horse Grooming Items – proper period type and construction
Tentage and Camps
There is no documentation of soldiers either Confederate or Union camping with “canvas” at Perryville. Tents are documented to higher rankings officers only i.e. majors, colonels, and generals. This does not mean you can’t have tents. You can have tents. We are just informing you of the historical information.
The use of any modern or inappropriate material (including cigarettes, modern eyeglasses and watches, modern food containers, plastic, soda cans, sleeping bags, coolers, etc. absolutely no Cell Phones are to be visible at any time) by Living History personnel in view of the visitors will not be acceptable at any time (including "after hours").
All Kentucky state park rules and regulations must be followed.
Recommended – Federal “rubber blankets” or “gum blankets”
Shelter halves do not appear in the Western Theater until the end of December 1862.
We recommend A-Frame styles.
Military camps are for military participants only. Civilians who wish to interact with the military will require the permission of the military commanders and make advance arrangements with them. Only functioning and appropriate period civilian interaction with the military will be allowed: i.e. laundress, contract cook, and refugee. Civilians simply cooking for reenactment units are not considered a functioning or appropriate impression for the military camps.
There will be a civilian camp set aside for authentic civilian impressions. Mixed civilian and military groups will camp in the Reenactor Camp of Convenience (Mixed Camp.) This area is provided for the comfort and convenience of our reenactors who wish to do family camping. Although this camp will not be interpreted to the public, all participants will remain in period attire with no modern items in view of the public (including “after hours.”) It is the responsibility for all military participants who camp in the mixed camp to attend the required drill and be aware of the military schedule.
Each soldier should carry a period tin cup, knife, fork, spoon, and tin plate. More extensive cooking items such as period individual frying pans (even improvised ones from old canteens) are not necessary and should be very limited Cooking during the Kentucky Campaign was done in messes (four or five to fifteen men) sharing the cooking duties and using large cooking utensils such as kettles, camp kettles, frying pans, coffee pots, dutch ovens, large spoons and forks, butcher knives, mess pans, wooden water buckets, axes, etc. These large items were carried in the regimental baggage wagons which accompanied the troops except in the presence of the enemy. They were often packed in wooden boxes serving as mess chests. When the soldiers were issued rations (normally in three to five day increments), the baggage wagons with the cooking utensils were present except on rare occasions. In some units, the soldiers assigned to the wagon trains did the cooking and the rations were delivered cooked to the troops in the ranks. Tables, chairs, and stools were not provided for soldiers or even company officers and no transportation allowance was allotted to them.
Military Structure - The rank you wear must be commensurate with the number of troops you put in the field. To serve as a distinct company you must be able to field at least 20 mounted troopers. Commanders are responsible for safety inspections as well as insuring that the event standards are adhered to. No one may serve above the rank of captain without a specific appointment from the overall command staff.
Miscellaneous – Feed hay will be provided for all horses. Water troughs will be situated near all encampments. All horse trailers will have designated parking areas. Said parking areas will be patrolled by the Kentucky Department of Parks. Camping out of trailers will not be allowed.
Cavalry impression requires participants to be mounted. Basically if you don’t have a horse you will be treated as infantry and you should refer to infantry participant guidelines.
Individuals and unattached messes are welcome and invited to participate. We will work with you to find you an appropriate regiment/battalion.
Confederate to Federal ratios will be 5 C.S. to 3 U.S. men. This means that for every 5 Confederate participants there must be 3 Federal participants. Registration for CS participants will be capped at 500 until Federal registration reaches 300. At that time we will allow participants to register as long as the 5 to 3 ratio is maintained.
Minimum Age to Participate – To carry a weapon at the Battle of Perryville you must be at least 16 years old. No exceptions!
If these standards for participation are acceptable then you are welcome to register for the 2016 Battle of Perryville.
Haver, Thomas T., Forty Eight Days, The 105th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Camp Cleveland, Ohio to Perryville, Kentucky.
OR, Vol. 52, Pt. 1, p. 51 – 53
OR. Vol. 16, Pt. 2, p. 746-747
Primary Resources provided by Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site, Manuscript Collection.
Tobey, John E., The Columbia Rifles Compendium, 2nd Edition.
Time-Life Books Echoes of Glory: Arms and Equipment of The Union, Arms and Equipment of the Confederacy, 2 volumes (1991).
Special thanks to the staff at Chickamauga National Battlefield for their assistance in developing these impression guidelines.